Netting Things Out

Alec J. Pacella

One of my favorite types of cuisine is Thai food. I love the variety, flavors and especially the spiciness. Like many, I have my favorite go-to location but was recently in Scottsdale, came across a Thai restaurant and had to give it a try.

While the curry dish that I ordered was fantastic, I made a classic blunder that rendered it almost inedible. With Thai food, it’s common to be able to select a specific spice level, typically expressed as a range from one to 10. At my Lakewood go-to, I always chose a four, which hits me just right. And of course, I did the same thing at this Scottsdale establishment – after all, a four is a four is a four, right? After almost having my eyeballs melt, I was quickly reminded of the danger of assumptions and how a four in Lakewood, Ohio can mean something very different as compared to a four in Scottsdale, Arizona. I know what you are thinking right about now; how is Pacella ever going to tie red curry to real estate? And by now, you likely know the response – read on!
The next day on that Scottsdale trip, I met with a developer that was building a flex-warehouse project. The discussion soon settled on economics and this developer quoted a figure that was preceded with the phrase “modified gross.” I immediately hit the brakes on the conversation, as the memory of my scorched
tonsils was still very fresh. I needed to understand exactly what the developer’s definition of modified gross was, as this is one of those terms that can mean dramatically different things to different people. This month, we are going to discuss the terminology used to describe the most common lease structures. Along the way, I will point out specific items to be aware of and components that can vary.
Leases generally fall into two camps: net and gross. The term “net” is an indication that, in addition to rent, the tenant is also responsible for a portion of the related occupancy expenses such as real estate taxes, insurance, common area maintenance, repairs, etc. The term “gross” is an indication that the rent
includes landlord contributions to at least some portion of occupancy expenses.

The following is a hierarchy of lease types, ranging from the types with the greatest tenant responsibilities to the types with the greatest landlord responsibilities.

Absolute net lease
This lease structure requires the tenant to pay for any costs related to the premises, including real estate taxes, property insurance, repairs, maintenance, utilities, etc. It also requires tenant to pay for large-scale items such as a roof replacement or new HVAC unit or even rebuilding the structure should it be damaged or destroyed. The best example of this type of lease is a ground lease, where a tenant pays rent associated with the underlying ground and is also responsible for all other types of occupancy cost, including constructing, maintaining, repairing and replacement of any improvements. This type of lease can also be referred to as a bond lease and is most often seen in single-tenant retail properties, especially restaurants.


The term “net” is an indication that, in addition to rent, the tenant is also responsible for a portion of the related occupancy expenses….
The term “gross” is an indication that the rent includes landlord contributions to at least some portion of occupancy expenses.


Triple net lease
This is by far the most widely used lease term and, like the term “cap rate,” it is often thrown around with reckless abandon. While some may assume this type of lease to result in the tenant paying for everything, that’s not usually the case. Let’s talk about what the tenant does pay for – in addition to rent, the three “nets” are real estate taxes, insurance and common area maintenance. These can be paid either directly (the tenant contracts for and pays the snow plowing expense) or indirectly (the landlord contracts for and pays the snow plowing expense and then sends a bill to the tenant for reimbursement). Now let’s talk about what the tenant does not pay for. Top of the list is replacement of major items, such as roof, mechanicals, structure or parking lot. And some gray can creep into this, as the lines between maintenance and replacement can be blurry. For example, an HVAC unit may need the belts replaced and a control unit swapped out. Would that be considered a repair (and thus an expense borne by the tenant) or a replacement (and thus an expense borne by the landlord). Another item is rebuilding expense. Suppose part of the property’s façade is damaged due to high winds – is this the tenant’s responsibility to repair or the landlords? While a well- constructed lease document will make situations like these clearer, one cannot simply rely on the term “triple net” as a catch-all. This type of lease is most often seen among multi-tenant retail properties, as well as single-tenant retail, industrial and office properties.


Modified gross lease
If ever there was a catch-all term, this would be it. Also known as a double net or a hybrid lease, this structure connotes that some of the expense responsibility falls on the tenant and some falls on the landlord. Unfortunately, that’s as clear as things get. Sometimes, it means that the landlord pays for insurance and common area maintenance and the tenant pays for real estate taxes. Other times, it can mean that the landlord pays for real estate taxes and the tenant pays for insurance and common area maintenance. And still other times, it may mean that the landlord pays for maintenance and real estate.


Full service gross lease typically implies that the tenant pays for all operating expenses, such as real estate taxes, insurance, repairs and maintenance of the grounds and building, etc. up to a set threshold. Future increases in these collective expenses that exceed the threshold
are the responsibility of the tenant.


Full-service gross lease

This is a very common structure in multi-tenant office properties in our market. It typically implies that the tenant pays for all operating expenses, such as real estate taxes, insurance, repairs and maintenance of the grounds and building, etc. up to a set threshold. Future increases in these collective expenses that exceed the threshold are the responsibility of the tenant. The tenant is also responsible for electricity usage within their premises, sometimes referred to as “lights and plugs.” But even this common structure has some pitfalls. One is janitorial – sometimes the landlord contracts and pays for cleaning of the tenant’s premises and other times the tenant will be required to contract for cleaning directly. Another is electricity. As electrical usage can be directly metered to the tenant’s premises, it can be sub-metered to the tenant’s premises, or it can be fed via a master meter and then charged on a pro rata basis.

Absolute gross lease
This structure is rarely seen, save for one type of tenant. And if any of you have ever been involved with a lease for the U.S. Government, you know exactly what I’m talking about. In an absolute gross lease, the landlord pays for everything for the entire term of the lease. There are no pass-throughs, escalations or separately metered utilities. The day the lease is signed, the tenant will know exactly what they will be paying each month for the entire duration of the lease. There is not a “one size fits all” lease structure and even when we hear a common term, there can still be nuances. As I was painfully reminded in Scottsdale, assuming you know something based on a commonly used term can be a sure way to get burned!

Alec Pacella, CCIM, president at NAI Pleasant Valley, can be reached by phone at 216-455-0925 or by email at apacella@naipvc.com. You can connect with him at http://www.linkedin.com/in/alecpacellaccim or subscribe to his youtube channel; What I C at PVC.

See Properties Magazine for March 2022

Three “glass-half-full” forecasts for the new year

Despite the ongoing uncertainty of the new virulent Omicron variant of Covid-19, there are a lot of positive signs that we can expect in 2022 for commercial real estate (CRE), according to a round-up of sources.

The case for optimism

First, however, an important caveat: Of course, all of these predictions are opinion. No matter how great the historical data used to inform those opinions, they are still not to be considered “financial advice”. Having said that, after a difficult two years (for global business, not just real estate), a little optimism is a welcome break.

Survey says…

First up, Deloitte’s annual forecast report for the CRE sector is out, and generally reflects a high degree of buoyancy.

“Eighty percent of respondents [to their survey] expect their institution’s revenues in 2022 to be slightly or significantly better than 2021 levels,” writes the report’s authors.

…And so does the data

Meanwhile, Forbes real estate contributor and economic analyst Calvin Schnure has done a list of predictions for the year ahead, starting with this one: “Property transactions will rise further in 2022 as the economic recovery gains momentum, and CRE prices will maintain growth in the mid-single digits. REIT mergers and acquisitions could top 2021 as well,” writes Schnure.

How does he come to this conclusion? It’s a matter of looking at the bigger (data) picture trends, he says – plotting this graph from RCA, Bloomberg and NAREIT data.

Source: https://www.forbes.com/sites/calvinschnure/2021/12/01/top-10-things-to-watch-in-commercial-real-estate-in-2022/?sh=352375d63002

“All in alert”

Finally, in December 2021, investment and commercial analysis publication The Motley Fool issued a “rare ‘all in’ buy alert” for CRE, offering three key points of their bullish positioning:

  • “Industrial and multifamily sectors look the most promising in the new year.”
  • “Retail and office CRE should have its good performers but see more headwinds.”
  • “REITs remain a promising avenue for overall returns.”

For the nitty-gritty in how they came to this conclusion, read the full analysis by author Marc Rappaport here.

As we said above, a prediction isn’t a guarantee, a forecast isn’t fact, but we think these bold analysts make a great case for optimism and a solid-looking year ahead for commercial property and investing.

From us to you, happy new year to our CRE network and peers!

Capital markets news bite: Daily fund indices showing record strength

The National Council of Real Estate Investment Fiduciaries’ (NCREIF) latest report on the performance of daily-priced fund indices (NFI‐DP) indicates remarkable strength in the sphere. The report covers the September 2021 period – the latest at the time of going to print – and the data shows the asset class had its highest monthly returns in a decade.

This would put year-to-date (nine months) returns for this group of daily-priced funds at 13.08%

Performance and make-up

The NFI‐DP at the end of Sept 21 was at 2.36%, up from 1.68% in the preceding month. According to the NCREIF, the index represents “the performance of a group of daily‐priced open‐end funds that invest predominantly in private real estate, generally ranging from 75% to 95% allocation”. The balance of allocation for these funds sits in liquid investments (including cash and securities). This makes for a “small universe of qualifying funds” and returns that are equal-weighted and gross of brokerage fees, as well as advisory and incentive fees.

Industry relevance

NCREIF’s data is used by various media and industry analysts as one element (of many) in the determination of market health. They put together various data products, of which this is one, by collecting property and fund level information drawn directly from members – usually on a quarterly basis. The NFI‐DP however is drawn monthly. They have data from over 35 000 properties and 150 funds on their database, which dates back to 1977.

National property index

The decade-high record for daily-priced fund indices (NFI‐DP) noted above is not the only record-level they have noted this year. The last results from the quarterly NCREIF Property Index (NPI) (published in August 2021, representing Q2 2021) show the highest return in the past ten years, sitting at 3.59% up from 1.72% in the previous quarter. This is the top return result since the second quarter of 2011 (3.94%). NCREIF writes, these “are unleveraged returns for what is primarily ‘core’ real estate held by institutional investors throughout the US”.

SOCIAL: What industry facts and figures do you use to inform your understanding of the state of the market?

NAI Pleasant Valley Announces New Agent- Lorin Schultz CCIM

Lorin Schultz, CCIM Joins NAI Pleasant Valley as Vice President

AKRON, OHIO – October 22, 2021,  NAI Pleasant Valley, a leading global commercial real estate brokerage firm, announced today that Lorin Schultz, CCIM joined the firm as Vice President. “We are excited to welcome Lorin back to the NAI Global family,” said President Alec Pacella.

Lorin has significant experience in commercial real estate, particularly in the office market around Akron. She joins NAI Pleasant Valley after spending several years at Colliers and NAI Cummins, where she secured purchases of substantial properties, including Merriman Valley Parkwood Plazas, and procurement of leases for companies such as Tegron and J.M. Smucker Company. Previous to joining the real estate profession, Lorin was a broadcast journalist for NBC stations in Columbus and Youngstown, Ohio.

Lorin holds a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Mass Media Communications from The University of Akron.  She became a licensed realtor in 2003 and later earned CCIM designation in 2009. Lorin currently belongs to the National Association of Realtors and Leadership Akron NEXT 10.

About NAI Pleasant Valley

NAI Pleasant Valley is the Northern Ohio office of NAI Global, the leading global commercial real estate brokerage firm. NAI Global offices are leaders in their local markets and work in unison to provide clients with exceptional solutions to their commercial real estate needs, locally and globally.

To learn more, visit www.naipvc.com

Top Tech: Salesforce

We’ve been on a mission lately, to share best practices and some of our favorite commercial real estate (CRE)-related technology tools in a series of blogs. This is our fifth in the series, and explores the uses of Salesforce. For clarity, this is NOT a paid or sponsored blog. We are motivated only by sharing information with our network. We want to hear from you too: What are your favorite tech tools? Is there a CRE digital solution we should know about?

Below we provide just a few reasons why they make our top tech list, and you can also visit them directly on http://www.salesforce.com/.

What is Salesforce?

First off, the basics: Salesforce – the company – is listed on the New York Stock Exchange, and Salesforce – the platform – is essentially a customer relationship management (CRM) tool. It is enterprise-focused, providing companies with the means to streamline all their sales and marketing functions, in order to promote goods, services and more sales – and because it is cloud-based, it’s accessible to anyone anywhere with a browser.

It is, we’ve read, the top CRM platform in the world. If you need to communicate with customers and manage your customer base, automate processes, or manage events, these are all to be found under the Salesforce umbrella.

Contacts managed

Real estate is a field that has traditionally been seen as high customer touch and low tech – especially on the residential side of the industry. The scope of the CRE market however demands a lot more than a mental rolodex. A CRM strategy informs how you manage your stakeholder engagements and a CRM system, like Salesforce, brings together all customer touchpoints – email, website, phone, social, and more – and gives you a single, smart view of all interactions with an individual.

For both clients and for customers, you can see how powerful that would be. No more wondering if your colleague followed up or what the last status of your discussion was. It will all be viewable and linked in one place.

Get smarter

In June 2021, Salesforce also announced the launch of their Einstein Relationship Insights (ERI) tool which makes use of artificial intelligence (AI) research to gather meaningful insight into the relationships you enjoy with companies, customers, and prospective clients. This will be a very interesting addition to watch. Venturebeat says “ERI can help sales reps close deals faster by acting as a virtual agent for salespeople in all industries, scanning news articles, social media, collaboration apps, email, and other online sources to uncover and deliver account and contact information”.

Marketing power

The kind of data that goes into a CRM – and can be extracted from one – can give your marketing and communications the edge. For example, you can capture a client’s personal contact preferences, so you always know what’s the best way to start a chat on their preferred medium.

Salesforce also offers things like an email studio so you can send gorgeous and relevant mailers – as well as mobile, social, and advertising studios – and a journey builder so you can guide customers through the steps, channels, and departments as needed.

What is your top tech tool for CRE? Share your favorites with us.